Nonfiction: “Code Talker”

Code Talker: The First and Only Memoir by One of the Original Navajo Code Talkers of WW II by Code TalkerChester Nez with Judith S. Avila

Chester Nez was one of the original 32 (some say 29, but Nez informs the reader otherwise) Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. He died two years ago. Thankfully, several years before Chester’s death, Judith Schiess Avila spent eighty hours interviewing both Chester and his son. As she states in her prologue to Code Talker, she had originally hoped to write a biography of Nez. But as she worked, she understood that the book should be a memoir, in Nez’s own voice.

Code Talker is a powerful story not only of heroism, but of racism, of language and of culture; of overcoming adversity and of how one man continued to ‘walk in beauty’ despite the dangers of war, his battle with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and the tragic loss of three of his children.

Nez grew up in New Mexico in what is called the ‘Checkerboard,’ an area outside of the Navajo Nation that was populated by Navajo Indians, whites and Latinos. It was a hardscrabble life. His mother died when he was a small child; he had no electricity, sewage or running water. What he did have was a loving extended family, spiritual grounding, and the narrative culture of his tribe. Nez was a great lover of story.

As a child Nez was sent to a boarding school for Indians. There he was underfed. A major goal of his education was not just to learn English but to forget his Navajo language and culture. Physical punishment was the norm for any infraction of the rules. In fact, life there was so difficult (and he was so hungry) that his father decided to send him and his sister to another school. That, too was a boarding school in that it was far away and the children could only go home for holidays. It was pretty rough, but less so than Chester’s first school.

Thankfully, Nez learned perfect English without forgetting his Navajo language. When the United States entered World War II, Nez was in high school. A Marine recruiter came to the school looking for Navajo men who were fluent in both languages. Even though Nez had been treated like a second-class citizen–his family’s livelihood had been threatened by government policy; he was required to have an identification card, but Navajos in New Mexico were not allowed to vote–Nez and others volunteered. After basic training, they learned that they would have a special mission–using the Navajo language, which was unwritten, as code to transmit vital military messages, messages that could save American lives and help to defeat the enemy Japanese.

Nez tells the story of being a Marine in World War II, but one with a mission that was so secret, he couldn’t even tell his family, much less anyone else, about it until 1968, when the information was declassified. That’s more than 20 years later. All he could tell people was that the Marines gave him a gun and sent him into battle. This, too, is true–he served in the Pacific theater, first on Guadalcanal, and later on the islands of Bougainville, Peleliu, and Guam. His first day of battle was shocking as he waded to the beach on Guadalcanal through the dead bodies of fellow Marines he had been speaking to only minutes before. Touching dead bodies was a spiritual violation for him, and he had to learn to get used to it. Though he made every effort to maintain his spiritual practices and to walk in beauty, he still suffered from PTSD (called combat fatigue at that time). His family arranged a special spiritual ceremony–an Enemy Way sing–that helped to relieve his symptoms and nightmares. Sadly, Nez’s return from the war was also a return to prejudice that had not marred his experience in the military.

Nez goes on to tell the reader about the rest of his life, which is also really interesting. He and other Navajo Code Talkers finally get the credit they deserve. Nez, as one of the original ‘twenty-nine,’ received a Congressional Gold Medal.
High school housekeeping: Here’s another memoir that is the kind that (I think) the framers of the Common Core were thinking about when they demanded you read more nonfiction. There’s great storytelling, heroic action, and a lot you can learn about history–mostly about WW II in the Pacific theater, but also about life for Navajos in New Mexico during the Great Depression, about Indian boarding school and the tragic policy of trying to eradicate native culture, and more. If you are interested in history, racism, World War II, pastoral life, or just the Code Talkers and what they did, this is a great book. It includes photos, maps of the islands and an appendix that gives the code words. Though an adult title, it’s not particularly difficult to read. It has a wonderful storytelling quality that you’ll enjoy. Give it a try.

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Drug Abuse “In Ecstasy”

In Ecstasy  In Ecstasy by Kate McCaffrey

Fifteen-year-old Sophie and Mia are longtime best friends, who, as the novel opens, are getting ready for a big party. Sophie is more outgoing. Mia is socially awkward and just hopes to get through the evening without making any big mistakes. The mistakes Mia is thinking about are about looking dorky and undesirable in front of boys. Little does she dream that she is going to make one of the great mistakes of her life.

At the party, Sophie and Mia run into Lewis Scott, the ‘dream god’ and Glenn, a guy they don’t know who appears to be Lewis’s friend. Lewis has everything–good looks, money, a cool car–and enough Ecstasy for the group. As soon as Mia swallows the pill stamped with a butterfly, her perception of the party and everyone in it changes.  Everyone is beautiful, everything is peace, she suddenly realizes how much she has always loved Lewis.

Because the Ecstasy makes Mia so comfortable and happy at parties, she keeps doing it. She and Lewis start going out and their relationship is in high gear immediately. Mia starts doing stupid things like having unprotected sex and, because she is hanging out with several guys who are heavily into drugs, she tries more serious, addictive substances. Meanwhile, something terrible happened to Sophie after the party. She feels that she can’t tell Mia about it. The more Mia comes out of her shell and is swept into a drug culture, the more Sophie withdraws. Soon, what had seemed like an unbreakable friendship is a thing of the past. And as their bond dissolves, it appears that no one is there to help Mia from self-destructing.

High school housekeeping: This is a cautionary tale about drug use, but a good one because the characters are realistic. Their family problems contribute to the more immediate problem with drug use. As in real life, some of the characters’ anger is justified, but some of the girls’ behavior is delusional–and the reader can see how living outside reality is one of the ingredients for a crash landing onto the plane of what’s real.

WIth a Lexile level of 630, this is a very easy read, but the subject and characterization are for teens. The small format of the book and the chapters which alternate between the point of views of the two friends are appealing to ‘reluctant’ readers. For teens working on their reading skills, this is a fast-paced and focused novel they will enjoy. For all teens, this is a realistic portrayal of the problems that accompany drug use and then addiction. I’ve purchased several copies and plan to book talk it in the fall.

Posted in Family Problems, Fiction, Hi-Low/Quick Read, Read 180, Young Adult Literature | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

More Than Romance: “Love and Other Theories”

Love and Other Theories by Alexis Bass  love theories

After freshman year of high school, Aubrey and her three best friends are on to an important reality: high school relationships don’t often last; in fact, given that high school students move on to college and other pursuits, they can’t last. And since this is true, why fall in love and get hurt needlessly?

They have a theory about this and enact a plan for their sophomore through senior years–to live by the girl code that they will never be sniveling, emotionally-wrecked girlfriends whose hearts are broken by the boys they date. They will go out with guys, hook up with guys, have sex with guys. They won’t allow the guys to become too attached to them. If any guys start to get too clingy, they will enact an exit strategy.

What could go wrong?

Well, any reader will guess exactly what can and will go wrong–but that’s part of the fun in YA novels that circle around romantic attachments. The hot new guy in school, Nathan Diggs, ends up in drama class with Aubrey. And while she’s a super smart girl who is headed to an elite university in the fall, she decides to play wild on the day of their meeting. They begin hot and heavy, and, like it or not, Aubrey is head over heels for Nathan. She just can’t say anything to her friends since her feelings break the girl code.

The trouble is, other girls also have the hots for Nathan and are eagerly awaiting their turn for a throw in the backseat of his BMW. Aubrey is constantly mentally checking her emotions, trying to stay cool–she’s also checking which of her best friends might make a move on Nathan. Because with the girl code, she is not allowed to object to her best friends having sex with the same guy that she has had sex with. (OK, yeah, ick.)

Widespread knowledge of the theories and real-life examples of their behavior make Aubrey, Melissa, Danica, and the extraordinarily beautiful Shelby some of the most popular girls in the school. Yet Aubrey can’t help but turn inward to acknowledge her true emotional state–and to question just how much pain the girl code and the theories can actually prevent.

High school housekeeping: The main problem with Love and Other Theories is that it takes so long to arrive at this questioning, especially considering that Aubrey is characterized as super smart. Meanwhile, the four girls are not just free love (well, not love exactly) advocates–they are snarky, petty witches whose main source of entertainment, other than making finely detailed observations about who is giving whom ‘oral’ exams, are 1) ruining the life of a former friend, Chiffon and 2) watching a teen soap opera together. Aubrey comments that she loves her friends because she and they are so “real.” They may be, but everything they talk about and do is trite and mean. It’s very hard to like them the way Aubrey does.

Yet, with Love and Other Theories, there’s a kicker. Once Aubrey allows herself to explore her true feelings and the reality of romantic relationships, the novel becomes excellent. Now the reader can finally see the smart girl that she’s been waiting for. All the pain Aubrey experiences is realistic–so too is the fact that if she hadn’t followed the theories, she would have experienced a good deal of pain anyway. Aubrey’s sense that after high school, life will be entirely different for all of the girls, as well as for the guys they romanced, is spot on. The telling of all of this is wonderful and makes the novel worth the read.

As Love and Other Theories is Alexis Bass’s debut (first) novel, I have no doubt her next will have better pacing, so I am looking forward to reading it because her observations about life are intelligent and important for teens. Meanwhile, I recommend this one to teens who can stick it. I think ‘reluctant’ readers will give up long before the novel comes into itself. (A little digression here: as a high school teacher librarian, I see a lot of teens give up on novels–novels that they claim to like very much–before they arrive at the end, even novels that are very well paced. This worries me. I know this is the subject for another article–something thoughtful on teen readers–but if we believe the research that tells us that the action in novels creates pathways in the brain so that the reader experiences them as if experiencing real life, what does this mean when so many teens give up before the valuable ending? If they only come up with pathways for snarky witchiness?) So–if you start this book, make sure you finish it–and experience the important things that Bass has to say about life, heartbreak, and growing up.

Caveat: As YA fiction becomes more and more edgy, I include fewer warnings in my reviews. However, Love and Other Theories contains lots of drinking, drunkenness, teen sex at parties and in cars (although sex is not described in any detail), nasty jokes about girls and their sex lives, plenty of f-bombs and more. I didn’t find any of it offensive except in that, as I stated, it was often snarky and witchy.

Posted in Family Problems, Fiction, Mature Readers, Over 375 pages, Romance, Young Adult Literature | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

“I Will Save You”

I Will Save You by Matt de la Peñai will save

I Will Save You opens with a startling scene as Kidd Ellison appears to throw himself and his old frenemy, Devon, into wild danger in an irrational attempt to save Olivia, the girl he loves, from Devon.

The danger that Kidd sees is not apparent to the reader. As Kidd finds himself in deep trouble for his actions, he moves through the past and through dreams and hallucinations to explain how he knows that Olivia was in serious danger–and why he had to do what he did.

Kidd has run away from Horizons, a home for kids who have experienced trauma. Early in the novel, the reader understands what some of the trauma is as it’s clear that Kidd’s father was abusive. But just how much trauma Kidd has undergone, the horror of it, comes to light slowly.

Kidd decides to go to Cardiff-by-the-Sea and work with Mr. Red maintaining the campsite where wealthier teens spend the summer. There Kidd meets Olivia, whom he finds beautiful (even though she is always hiding the side of her face under a ski cap) and smart. She’s quiet and introspective. The two have wonderful and honest conversations and appear to be falling in love. But just as things are looking up for Kidd, Devon appears on the scene, hoping to convince Kidd that Olivia, who has led a much more privileged life, is an enemy and can’t truly feel anything for Kidd. While Kidd would like to seek advice from Mr. Red, the campsite manager is dealing with his own demons. He had once been a pro surfer, but became an alcoholic after the tragic loss of his son. Though he’s been sober for years, every day is a challenge to him. Unable to seek help, Kidd attempts to manage the unmanageable alone.
High school housekeeping: At a little over 300 pages, I Will Save You is a little longer than some ‘reluctant reader’ recommendations. However, the story is weird and powerful in a way that will appeal to guys (and girls as well) who have had difficult lives and don’t know how to straighten them out. It’s an easy read–the Lexile level is 770–but this novel doesn’t have the tidy ending that many easy reads have. So, you have a book that calls for thoughtful examination of a situation and an ending that is open–not so much to interpretation, but to discussion about Kidd–and yet is accessible to readers of all levels. Because it will make you think of life’s many imperfections and shows the reader how even a kid with many strikes against him can act with love and courage, I recommend this book to all teen readers.

Posted in Family Problems, Fiction, Grief, Horror/Mystery/Suspense, Young Adult Literature | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Adult Books for Teens: Nonfiction: “Dead Wake”

Dead wakeDead Wake: The Last Crossing of the Lusitania by Erik Larson

The Lusitania, a British ship in the Cunard Line, was considered the most elegant passenger liner of its day. It was fast and luxurious, and a trip aboard was worthy of excitement even for third-class passengers. Yet on its last trip in May of 1915–during World War I–it was a floating target for German U-boats.

On May 1, 1915, the Lusitania left New York City to return to its home port of Liverpool. The Imperial German government had issued a warning in newspapers all over America that passengers should beware of traveling on the ship in a war zone (which it would have to do to reach Liverpool). Passengers seem blithely ignorant of the dangers despite that warning. Several reasons are given for this, including the busyness of preparing for such a journey (no time to read the paper), the assurances of Cunard lines that it was safe, and the fact that the ship was to be accompanied in British waters by a British Naval escort (sadly, it was not).

The Lusitania was sunk off the coast of Ireland on May 7, 2015 by the German submarine U-20. Nearly 1,200 people were killed, including children and babies. Of these, approximately 125 were Americans. Although the United States did not immediately enter the war, the heartless sinking of the Lusitania–without warning and against rules of warfare–was a factor that turned the previously neutral Americans against Germany and was the foundation of their willingness to fight on the side of the British.

Since these facts are well known, a reader may wonder what Larson will have to say about the last trip of the Lusitania. Yet, as he did in The Devil in the White City and In the Garden of Beasts, Larson creates a thriller. This time, a thriller of a chase in which the reader learns about submarine warfare. She becomes very interested in the lives of several passengers, whose hopes, dreams, and accomplishments are detailed.

One of the main characters in the book is not a passenger, but rather President Woodrow Wilson. During the war, he is in such grief over the death of his wife that he felt that he wanted to die. Later, he finds a new love and is pretty love sick and distracted as he tries to keep the country neutral in an environment where that is less and less possible. The discussion of his course and decisions make the reader realize just how human powerful world leaders are. This is also true of the discussion of Winston Churchill, who seems to act less on the best interest of passengers in danger and more with a willingness to allow a tragedy that will bring the United States into the war, thus helping Britain. Due to submarine warfare, the British were losing far more battleships than they could afford to.

German submarines or U-boats were taking out a lot of British ships. In response, the British were flying their ships under false flags. The Germans retaliated by saying that they would hit any ship that was in British waters around the British Isles, including neutral merchant ships and passenger liners. This made it very dangerous for passengers to cross the ocean. Generally speaking, the British, including Churchill, didn’t believe this would happen. It was too savage. However, Larson points out that mystery writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (of Sherlock Holmes fame) wrote a short story about just such an incident a year-and-a-half before the war began. Unfortunately, people thought it was pure fantasy.

Some of the best parts of Dead Wake are the discussions of Captain Schwieger and the German crew of U-boat 20 as they hunt down and torpedo ships. The submarine or U-boat life is difficult. The heat is intense and the atmosphere swampy due to the refiltering of oxygen. The men never bathe (no water) and all smells hang in the air–fried fish and onions, the toilet, etc. Yet U-20’s captain and crew are vicious predators, often ignoring the rules of warfare and foregoing warnings that would save lives in an effort to rack up hits and sink as much tonnage as possible–the measure through which the German Navy judges them successful.

Equaling the description of life aboard a submarine is the intrigue in Room 40–a British spy secret which shows that the British, headed by spymaster Blinker Hall, know a great deal about U-20 and its whereabouts, possibly enough to prevent the sinking of the Lusitania. The questionable choices of British Naval Intelligence officers frustrate the reader, who can’t put the book down, hoping that they will alter their course in an effort to save innocent lives.

High school housekeeping: Although Dead Wake is an adult book of average length (430 pages), it’s longer than most YA books. But it is perfect for the student interested in history.

The preparations for the voyage and the insights into the lives of many of the passengers bring them to life. The reader cares about them, and this makes the many deaths the truly great tragedy that it is.

In addition, the reader gets a feel for what life was like one hundred years ago. Some of the stranger aspects include a general interest in the occult, including the use of Ouija boards and seances with psychics. And then there is life on a luxury liner–the food, the games, the things people do to occupy their time.

The suspense of the shipwreck and its aftermath is engaging for teens. Passengers and crew alike see the bubbling wake of the torpedo as it rushes toward them for an agonizing 35 seconds. Though they believe the ship won’t sink, within 15 minutes they realize the truth as it lists more and more. Sadly, many lifeboats become useless. On one side, they hug the boat; on the other the tilt of the sinking ship moves them too far outward to easily board. People panic, running to find their children, who are playing just about anywhere on the giant ship. People jump overboard, sometimes without their life vests. Some of them are pulled under in the wake of the ship and never surface. It’s a horrifying scene. Larson describes all this, allowing the horror to arise from facts rather than descriptive gore. And, of course, good writing helps the reader to connect this tragedy to the general tragedy of war and the countless lives that are regularly lost because of it.
I highly recommend Dead Wake to teens who are interested in history, in the 1910’s, in WW I or in submarine warfare.

Posted in Historical Fiction/Historical Element, Non-fiction, Over 375 pages | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Mystery: “The Night She Disappeared”

The Night She Disappeared by April Henry   night disappeared

Gabie agrees to switch nights working at Pete’s Pizza so that Kayla can do something else. Probably go on a date although she’s recently broken up with her boyfriend and doesn’t say exactly what she has in mind. Just a routine favor between coworkers. But something goes very wrong. When Drew answers a call for a pizza delivery and the man on the other end of the line asks whether the girl with the Mini Cooper–that’s Gabie–is delivering that night, Drew doesn’t think much of it. Gabie’s not there on her usual night. Drew answers that someone will deliver. And Kayla is the one.

Kayla doesn’t come back from the delivery and Drew calls the police. An investigation is launched. It’s clear that whoever took her had wanted Gabie, had known that this was Gabie’s usual night to work. What has he done to Kayla?

Days pass and the leads don’t look good. The primary suspect is shifty and untrustworthy. As is true in most all these cases, the police believe that Kayla is dead. While they are dragging the river for her body, Gabie convinces Drew that she feels Kayla’s presence and knows that she is alive. But for how long? How long does a psychopathic murder allow a girl to live–and under what conditions?
High school housekeeping: I enjoyed The Girl Who was Supposed to Die a few weeks back, so I decided to try another April Henry mystery. Again, I enjoyed the novel–the pace, the suspense, the way that teens Gabie and Drew feel inadequate to help and yet have very important skills to offer in the investigation. This is a fun summer read–quick and satisfying. I believe it’ll be entertaining to most teens including reluctant readers as well as those who are struggling and improving their reading skills. The inter-chapters include police reports, lab results from the crime scene, police interview transcripts and more. All of these tidbits drive the narrative forward. If you’re a mystery fan and want teen characters, Henry has given you another great option to choose from.

Posted in Family Problems, Fiction, Horror/Mystery/Suspense, Read 180 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Adult Books for Teens: “Girls and Sex”

girls and sex  Girls and Sex by Peggy Orenstein

For adults who really want to be honest with teens about sexuality, this is the books we’ve been waiting for. For teens–guys as well as girls–who are having trouble navigating teen sexual culture, this is the book you’ve been waiting for.

Will you enjoy reading it? Honestly, it made liberal-hearted me a bit squeamish as it covered all the bases: hook-up culture in both high school and college, including the demand on girls that they give guys whom they don’t even know blow jobs (because the current generation of teens has a mantra that this isn’t real sex)–and the need for these girls to get pretty drunk in order to allow themselves to think this was OK/normal; the culture of ‘purity pledges’ that has come as a backlash (and the research that shows that the purity pledges don’t work/that teens who take them are more likely to get pregnant than those who don’t); date rape; rape on college campuses; binge drinking and rape; sexist images and stereotyping of female bodies; pornography that degrades and objectifies women as one of the only sex education tools that teens use because they are getting ‘abstinence only’ education at school; the negative to disastrous sexual encounters that result from ‘porn-ed’ and’ abstinence-only-ed’ (painful, humiliating sexual encounters modeled after porn and tens of millions of dollars of taxpayer money poured into abstinence with virtually no resulting decline in teen sex); the bizarre and very public tightrope walk girls must take between frigid prude and social-media-shamed slut.

Yes, the issues are so vast and numerous, it makes you spin. While there is discussion in the book of LGBTQIA issues (and interviews of lesbians girls), the book is largely about cisgender teens, about how girls and boys see themselves relating to one another sexually; about discomfort in challenging norms and about how to be assertive in taking back authority for one’s own body and one’s own pleasure.

Orenstein navigates the charged environment of high school and college sexual practices by interviewing over 70 girls about their experiences; she attends purity balls; she attends abstinence-only sex ed classes and classes where the discussion of sexuality is much more frank and without any judgment. Her research is eye-opening. By the time she arrives at her final chapter, which includes some suggestions for supporting girls and young women to be assertive about their sexual needs, even the faint-hearted will be agreeing with her. As she discusses the much more open and frank education that teens in Holland are given, we wish for the same for our own children. Yes, the conversations are difficult, even embarrassing for some adults (who had their own very lousy sex education as teens–so this is not a blame game). But when teens–boys and girls–are told the truth about their desires and then encouraged not to subvert them into a hook-up culture, but to form loving, respectful partnerships, everyone benefits. As it now stands–and as Girls and Sex makes very clear–the sexual culture for girls is one where girls are coerced into giving sexual pleasure to boys (often by somehow ‘owing’ oral sex to boys because they ended up at the same party) without getting any sort of sexual pleasure in return. So, uncomfortable as it is to discuss, the sexual pleasure of girls must be addressed.

Orenstein summarizes very well in her final paragraph:

“I want sexuality to be a source of self-knowledge and creativity and communication despite its potential risks. I want them to revel in their bodies’ sensuality without being reduced to it. . . . I want them to be safe from disease, unwanted pregnancy, cruelty, dehumanization, and violence. If they are assaulted, I want them to have recourse from their school administrators, employers, the courts. . . . We’ve raised a generation of girls to have a voice, to expect egalitarian treatment in the home, in the classroom, in the workplace. Now it’s time to demand that ‘intimate justice’ in their personal lives as well.”
High school housekeeping: While this is an adult book–and a very frank one–the discussions with the interviewees are about real life in high school and on college campuses. It would be sad to force you to navigate this craziness alone–but that’s what adults are doing when they hide the frank conversation and the possible solutions from you. So–I recommend that all high school students read this. Yes, boys, you need to read it, too. It will help you to understand why having sex with a passed-out girl (or boy, as in one case in the book) is rape. And it will help those of you who would never consider such a thing to understand how to talk to girls about what they want and need. So, yes, read it.

Posted in bullying, Human Rights Issues, Mature Readers, Non-fiction | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment